Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree Tuesday appointing Dmitry Medvedev as head of the government following a parliamentary approval.
Earlier in the day, out of 430 deputies present at the State Duma, Russia's lower house of the parliament, 374 voted for Medvedev's post as prime minister and 56 voted against it.
The ruling United Russia party has 339 seats, or 75.3 percent, in the 450-seat chamber.
Medvedev, 52, who is also the chairman of the United Russia party, took office in 2012.
His government resigned Monday after Putin took the oath of office to start his fourth term as Russian president.
After the inauguration, Putin proposed Medvedev continue to serve as prime minister.
On Tuesday, Putin appeared at the State Duma requesting that deputies support his proposal.
On Monday, Putin signed a decree for Russia's roadmap of strategic development through 2024 that sets targets in a wide range of spheres, including economic growth and technological breakthroughs.
Putin told the parliament that Medvedev and some members of his government had worked on the program for over a year.
"I consider it quite logical that this team will have to implement these plans," Putin said.