-- We should encourage green ways of working and living and speed up efforts to conserve ecosystems and the environment.
We need to protect the environment while pursuing development and achieve development in a well-protected environment, making sustained efforts to build a sound ecological system. We need to take serious action to prevent and control air, water, and soil pollution, set a red line that the country's total area of ecological spaces should not fall below, move forward with eco-friendly projects to protect and restore mountains, waters, forests, and farmlands, and intensify ecological conservation and restoration efforts. Over the next five years, we should aim to ensure that water consumption, energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP are cut by 23%, 15%, and 18%, respectively, and that forest coverage reaches 23.04%. We should also make it our aim, within this timeframe, to develop and use energy and resources much more efficiently and make improvements to the quality of ecosystems and the environment. In particular, we should strive for major progress in the control and prevention of air pollution and see to it that the air quality of cities at and above the prefectural level is good or excellent for 80% of the year. We must work to build, through tireless efforts, a Beautiful China where the sky is blue, the land is green, and the water runs clear.
-- We need to deepen reform and opening up to create new institutions for development.
Fundamentally, development relies on reform and opening up. We must deepen reform across the board, uphold and improve the basic economic system, establish a modern system of property rights, and see that a rule of law government is basically in place. It should be ensured that the market plays the decisive role in resource allocation and the government better plays its role, and work should be accelerated to create the systems, mechanisms, and growth model that will guide the new normal in economic development.
We should work for significant progress in pursuing the Belt and Road Initiative and for breakthroughs in our cooperation with other countries on industrial capacity. We should promote the optimization of imports and exports, significantly increase the proportion of trade in services, and promote China's transformation from a trader of quantity to a trader of quality. We should put into force across the board the management system for pre-establishment national treatment plus a negative list, and progressively build a network of high-standard free trade areas. With these efforts, we should be able to usher in a new phase in building an open economy based on new systems.
-- We need to ensure that continuous progress is made in raising living standards, and see that everyone shares in the fruits of development.
Guided by the vision of people-centered development, we need to continue to strengthen points of weakness in meeting basic needs for the people in order to achieve common prosperity. We need to fight hard to win the war against poverty and help lift out of poverty all rural residents falling below the current poverty line, and achieve poverty alleviation in all poor counties and areas.
We should put in place a national catalogue of basic public services. We should establish more equitable and sustainable social security systems. We need to ensure that all schools providing compulsory education comply with educational standards, that everyone has access to secondary education, that China has more world-class universities and first-class fields of discipline, and that the average number of years of schooling received by the working-age population increases from 10.23 to 10.8 years.
We need to create 50 million plus new urban jobs. We need to improve the income distribution system, reduce the income gap, and increase the proportion of the middle-income group in the whole populace. We should improve systems of government housing support, which should include the rebuilding of 20 million housing units in rundown urban areas.
We need to work for progress in building a Healthy China and achieve a one-year increase in average life expectancy. We need to respond proactively to population aging. We should build a modern system of public cultural services and put into effect cultural programs to boost civic morality and keep Chinese culture thriving. These efforts should enable people not only to enjoy a better life in material terms, but also to live a more enriching intellectual and cultural life.
To achieve success in our work to promote economic and social development during the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan and finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, we must keep to the following three guidelines:
First, give top priority to development
Development is of primary importance to China and is the key to solving every problem we face. During the next five years, we must take particular care to avoid falling into the "middle-income trap," and we need to address an increasing number of problems and risks. Pursuing development is like sailing against the current: you either forge ahead or drift downstream. We must remain committed to economic development as our central task, endeavor to promote sound development, and respond effectively to risks and challenges so as to ensure that China's economy, like a gigantic ship, breaks the waves and goes the distance.
Second, make major headway in carrying out structural reform
At present, we face problems both with aggregate supply and demand and with our structures. The structural problems are more acute, and reform should be conducted to adjust these structures. While working to achieve an appropriate expansion of aggregate demand, we need to give particular emphasis to structural reform on the supply side, reducing supply in some areas while increasing it in others. This means that we need to reduce ineffective and lower-end supply while increasing effective and medium- and high-end supply, increase the supply of public goods and services, ensure that development is driven by both supply and demand, and improve total-factor productivity. This should enable us to unleash and develop productive forces.
Third, accelerate the shift in driving forces for development
In the course of economic development, it is only natural that old drivers of growth are replaced by new ones. As conventional driving forces weaken, it is critical that new driving forces emerge and that the conventional ones undergo a transformation so that new twin engines are formed; only then is it possible to upgrade the economy and achieve sustainable growth. This is the crucial period in which China currently finds itself, and during which we must build up powerful new drivers in order to accelerate the development of the new economy. We need to move faster to develop new technologies, industries, and forms of business, boost the development of a sharing economy through institutional innovations, create sharing platforms, and develop emerging industry clusters such as high-tech and modern service industry clusters, thus creating strong new engines. We will use network-based information technology and other modern technologies to drive changes in models of production, management, and marketing, create new industry chains, supply chains, and value chains, and transform and upgrade conventional drivers, thus injecting them with new vitality.
Ultimately, it is the people who are the inexhaustible source of power that drives development. A workforce of over 900 million, of whom over 100 million have received higher education or are professionally trained: this is our greatest resource and strength. Obviously, replacing old drivers of growth with new ones and achieving a shift in development toward greater reliance on human resources, human capital, and innovation is a process of painful adjustment. But it is at the same time an upgrading process with great promise. We just have to get through this process, and we can, without question, reinvigorate the economy and ensure its dynamic growth.
Looking ahead to the next five years, we are fully confident that we will finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects within the set timeframe, that our people will enjoy better lives, and that there will be an even brighter future for the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
I now want to discuss the major areas of work for 2016.
This is the first year of the decisive stage in finishing building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and a crucial year in carrying out structural reform. To ensure that the government's goal for this year is accomplished, we must do the following:
-- hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics;
-- implement the guiding principles of the 18th National Congress of the CPC and the third, fourth, and fifth plenary sessions of the 18th CPC Central Committee;
-- follow the guidance of Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, and the Scientific Outlook on Development;
-- put into practice the guiding principles from General Secretary Xi Jinping's major policy addresses;
-- work in accordance with the overall plan for promoting all-round economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological progress and the Four-Pronged Comprehensive Strategy;*
-- continue reform and opening up;
-- follow the new vision of development;
-- follow the general principle of making progress while working to keep performance stable;
-- adapt to the new normal in economic development;
-- follow the general guidelines that macro policies should be stable, industrial policies targeted, micro policies flexible, reform policies practical, and that social policies should ensure basic needs;
-- maintain a balance between ensuring steady growth and making structural adjustments;
-- ensure that the economy operates within an appropriate range;
-- strengthen supply-side structural reform;
-- accelerate the fostering of new driving forces for development;
-- strengthen traditional comparative advantages;
-- cut overcapacity and excess inventory, deleverage, reduce costs, and strengthen points of weakness;
-- strengthen basic safeguards for public wellbeing;
-- prevent and control risks.